The Placenta and Neurodisability, 2nd Edition

Many neurodevelopmental deficits originate in the perinatal period and there is increasing awareness of the need to look to early life, including prenatal life, to understand the origins of cognitive development and risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.

This comprehensive and authoritative book is structured in a logical way from pathology to clinical outcome. Throughout, information from the basic sciences is placed within the clinical context, and there is excellent use of illustrative figures and images.  Written by leading obstetricians, neonatologists, paediatricians and pathologists, this volume collates the ever-increasing evidence, both pathological and epidemiological, for the critical role of the utero-placenta in neurodisability, both at term and preterm. It encapsulates new advances in antepartum and perinatal imaging, new clinical aspects of fetal compromise, recent evidence of endocrine, haematological and inflammatory origins of utero-placental dysfunction, and possible cerebro-protective interventions. This text is essential reading for everyone concerned with child development and the in-utero origins of neurological disability.

  • Written by leading obstetricians, neonatologists, paediatricians and pathologists
  • Discusses the role of  placenta in the pathophysiology of CNS
  • Examines recent evidence of endocrine, haematological and inflammatory origins of utero-placental dysfunction
  • Reviews latest advances in antepartum and perinatal imaging

Readership

Obstetricians, neonatologists, pathologists and basic scientists.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine Series

Prechtl’s Method on the Qualitative Assessment of General Movements in Preterm, Term and Young Infants

A quick, non-invasive, non-intrusive and cost-effective method with high reliability and high validity is much in demand for the early detection of neurological anomalies which point to cerebral palsy and developmental deficits later on in life.

Over his years as a distinguished developmental neurologist, Heinz Prechtl has devised such a method; a qualitative assessment of general movements (GMs) as a specific predictor for neurological impairments. His method is described in this book.

GMs form part of a distinct pattern of movements in preterm babies, term newborns and young infants. They are complex, frequent, and usually of sufficient length. Changes in the normal quality of GMs are a reliable indicator of brain dysfunction.

Supporting Videos 

Videos to accompany 15 cases selected from the book are free to download with every book purchase. Each is of about one minute in duration and demonstrates the different age-specific movement patterns. Contact admin@mackeith.co.uk for free access if you have purchased the book from another book seller.

(Note to Mac users: you may need to convert the AVI files in order to view them. Free converters are widely available for download, e.g. from iSkysoft.)

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 167

Neonatal Seizures

A better understanding of neural activity and the development of cortical connections and networks is an important requirement for evaluating the cause and treatment of neonatal seizures.

There have been many advances in the management of neonatal seizures such as increased use of EEGs, therapeutic hypothermia for HIE and exome sequencing, to name a few. Neonatal Seizures, Current Management, Future Challenges distils what is known about these advances into one scholarly yet practical text.

Full Book Review

Read the full book review by Janet M Rennie published in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology.

Readership

Neonatologists, paediatricians, neurologists, neurophysiology technologists, and other health professionals who care for neonates with seizures.

 

Extremely Preterm Birth and its Consequences

The ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns) Study was the largest and most comprehensive multicentre study ever completed for this population of babies born before 28 weeks’ gestation. The authors’ presentation and exploration of the results of the research will help clinicians to prevent adverse health outcomes and promote positive health for these children. They have focused on the exposures and outcomes related to the developing brain, inflammation and infection as major risk factors for developmental adversity.

  • Identifies potentially modifiable risk factors and pathways leading to a broad range of neurodevelopmental impairments in middle childhood, as well as to other conditions such as asthma, obesity, cerebral palsy and autism spectrum disorder.
  • With a focus on pre-, peri-, and post-natal inflammation and the methods used to assess it.
  • Covers antenatal and postnatal risk factors, then structural and functional indicators of damage to the brain.

From the Foreword

“The ELGAN Study is an important contribution and not only clarifies, but also signposts their work and future research directions … one of the most important large detailed and prospective longitudinal studies in our field.”

Neil Marlow

Professor of Neonatal Medicine, University College London

Readership

It will be a valuable and comprehensive resource for practising neonatologists, developmental paediatricians, child neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as to researchers studying population health.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine

Fetal Behaviour

Fetal behaviour and movements not only give an insight into the developing brain, as an expression of neural activity, but are also necessary for the further development of neural structure and of other organs. This book presents an account of our current understanding of fetal behaviour as obtained through the assessment of fetal movements and behavioural states. The approach is based on the premises of developmental neurology, and provides important clues for the recognition of the age-specific functional repertoire of the nervous system.

After presenting the historical background, the authors describe in detail the patterns of fetal movements and the mechanisms underlying them. They then discuss determinants of fetal behaviour, explaining the impact of different pregnancy-related and maternal factors on behaviour. Other chapters describe important aspects such as fetal responsiveness, laterality and development of handedness, and the behaviour of twins. The final chapter reviews research on the effects of various neurological conditions on fetal behaviour.

The ability to assess the functional condition of the nervous system is invaluable to the clinician, as a considerable percentage of early brain damage is of prenatal origin. The structured and standardized description of fetal behavioural patterns proposed in this book improves our ability to understand the mechanisms underlying various aspects of behaviour in healthy fetuses and in those with brain lesions or other risk factors. Because of this, the volume will be of great interest not only to researchers in this field but also to all of those working in neonatology, paediatrics and paediatric neurology.

Readership

Researchers in this field, neonatologists, paediatricians, paediatric neurologists, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, obstetricians

Media

The book is accompanied by 26 movies using both ultrasound and dynamic MRI to illustrate the text.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 189

Alcohol, Drugs and Medication in Pregnancy

Exposure to intrauterine drugs, alcohol and medicines can have profound effects on the child’s behaviour and propensity to behavioural disturbances. Some agents alter anatomic structure; others alter the chemical balance of neurotransmitters and may thus alter the regulation of brain function. This book documents the outcome and consequences for children exposed to intrauterine drugs, alcohol and medicine and explores strategies to support these children and those who care for them, including statutory agencies.

The international team of contributors sets out to inform the reader of the potential risks to infants exposed to a range of intrauterine chemicals that are potentially neuroactive, including medicinal drugs such as antiepileptics, antidepressants and antipsychotics, as well as drugs of abuse, including alcohol, opiates, and recreational drugs such as cannabis and tobacco. They review the teratogenic action of some of the chemical processes and the relationship of exposure to the stage of pregnancy.

In setting out the evidence for outcomes, the authors demonstrate that decisions about future care and management can and should be made early, with a secure understanding of the effect of this early exposure. This should allow professionals to provide protective management and prevent the delays in intervention and decision making that have so often been seen in this area of medical and social care.

  • Demonstrates the consequences for the child of alcohol and drugs in pregnancy
  • Includes chapters on the diagnosis and management of fetal alcohol syndrome
  • Explores strategies to support affected children and those who care for them

Readership

Paediatricians, neonatologists, obstetricians, gynaecologists, child and adolescent psychiatrists and psychologists, those working in child care and child protection.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 188

Brain Damage in the Preterm Infant

This Clinic in Developmental Medicine describes a meticulous survey of germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants. The babies weighed 501-2000g at their birth in three New Jersey counties between 1984 and 1987. They were studied prospectively with cranial ultrasound; the findings were correlated with very detailed pathological examination of the brains of those who died, and with later outcome in the survivors. The numbers studied in this population-based sample were large enough both to test and to generate hypotheses about the causes and consequences of haemorrhage.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 131

Quadruplets and Higher Multiple Births

Improved neonatal care and nutrition have meant that many more babies from quadruplet and higher-order conceptions survive than in the past. In this book, the author brings together what is known from historical records and reports in the medical, psychological, and popular press on the lives of these children and the psychodevelopmental consequences of their multiple status. She points to the contribution that research studies on higher multiple sets could make to our understanding of genetic-environmental interactions and gives valuable methodological advice for those wishing to initiate such a study. Changes in social practices and medical knowledge are highlighted, various aspects of pregnancy and birth are discussed, and the practical and emotional problems faced by families of multiple sets are sensitively described. Appended to the book is an illustrated catalogue of quadruplet case reports gleaned from the literature, including birth details and postnatal histories.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 107