Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66 & GMFM-88) User’s Manual 3rd Edition

The third edition of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66 & GMFM-88) User’s Manual has retained the information contained in the original 2002 and 2013 publications which included the conceptual background to the development of the GMFM, and the administration and scoring guidelines for people to be able to administer this clinical and research assessment tool appropriately. Information is presented on the development and validation of two abbreviated methods of estimating GMFM-66 scores using the GMFM-66-Item sets (GMFM-66-IS) and the GMFM-66-B&C (Basal & Ceiling), and updates are included on the Challenge module and the Quality FM, translations, and the use of the GMFM in populations other than cerebral palsy and Down syndrome.

The new edition includes information and an Appendix on the updated version of the Gross Motor Ability Estimator scoring program (GMAE-3), which is available through the GMFM App+ (see the CanChild website at (


The GMFM User’s Manual, is used primarily by physical therapists and other health professionals who work with children, youth and adults with cerebral palsy. The tool has both wide clinical applicability as a means of assessing and describing current gross motor function in this population, and as a validated method of evaluating change in function over time. It serves the needs of clinical and health services researchers as an outcome measure to assess the impact of any of a host of interventions that are proposed as methods of enhancing or tacking gross motor function in this population.

Early Detection and Early Intervention in Developmental Motor Disorders

Early-detection-and-early-intervention-in-developmental disorders

Critically ill infants in the newborn period are at high risk of developmental motor disorders. Mijna Hadders-Algra comprehensively addresses how best to detect which infants will be later diagnosed and how best to enact early intervention to improve their quality of life. Parts I & II provide an overview of the clinical picture and neurodevelopmental mechanisms. In Parts III & IV basic principles and features governing typical and atypical motor development are explained. Part V summarises assessment methods and Part VI discusses the methods and effectiveness of early intervention.

  • Provides practical clinical strategies to improve care of children with or at risk of developmental motor disorders (such as cerebral palsy or developmental co-ordination disorder).
  • Pays special attention to the family and environmental adaptations.
  • Video-clips illustrate typical and atypical movements.
  • Consistent use of the ICF as a framework.

From the Foreword

“The combination of theoretical and practical information with some really philosophical insights provide value for clinicians and for those wanting to teach and expand the evidence base in this area for the future.”

Anna Basu

Clinical Senior Lecturer and Honorary Consultant Paediatric Neurologist,

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK


This evidence-based practical guidance will be useful for health professionals working in the field of early detection and early intervention including paediatricians, developmental paediatricians, neonatologists, child neurologists, paediatric physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists and educationalists.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine

The Cerebral Palsies: Epidemiology and Causal Pathways

This is a specialist reference on the most common physical disability – the cerebral palsies. It reviews published data on trends, presents thinking on causal pathways in the cerebral palsies suggesting means of prevention, and reviews management options. It is an essential guide to good epidemiological research into cerebral palsies and related areas.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No.151

The Epilepsy-Aphasia Spectrum

Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is a rare childhood epilepsy, characterised by a sudden or gradual loss of ability to understand or express language.

Written by two world-renowned  authorities on childhood epilepsy, this book is aimed at the large range of professionals involved in the diagnosis, therapy and rehabilitation of children on the Epilepsy-Aphasia Spectrum (EAS). The book includes vivid first-hand accounts of the impact of language loss by adults who have grown up with LKS.


Epileptologists, psychiatrists, psychologists, neuropsychologists, speech and language therapists and trainees in those areas.

Full Book Review
Read the full book review by Michael Absoud and Gillian Baird published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine Series

The Floppy Infant

This book is devoted to the recognition and diagnosis of the floppy infant syndrome. It includes a review of some of the more important causes and provides a practical approach to the assessment and management such children require.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine N0. 76

The Placenta and Neurodisability, 2nd Edition

Many neurodevelopmental deficits originate in the perinatal period and there is increasing awareness of the need to look to early life, including prenatal life, to understand the origins of cognitive development and risk of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.

This comprehensive and authoritative book is structured in a logical way from pathology to clinical outcome. Throughout, information from the basic sciences is placed within the clinical context, and there is excellent use of illustrative figures and images.  Written by leading obstetricians, neonatologists, paediatricians and pathologists, this volume collates the ever-increasing evidence, both pathological and epidemiological, for the critical role of the utero-placenta in neurodisability, both at term and preterm. It encapsulates new advances in antepartum and perinatal imaging, new clinical aspects of fetal compromise, recent evidence of endocrine, haematological and inflammatory origins of utero-placental dysfunction, and possible cerebro-protective interventions. This text is essential reading for everyone concerned with child development and the in-utero origins of neurological disability.

  • Written by leading obstetricians, neonatologists, paediatricians and pathologists
  • Discusses the role of  placenta in the pathophysiology of CNS
  • Examines recent evidence of endocrine, haematological and inflammatory origins of utero-placental dysfunction
  • Reviews latest advances in antepartum and perinatal imaging


Obstetricians, neonatologists, pathologists and basic scientists.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine Series

Typical and Atypical Motor Development

Sugden and Wade, leading authors in this area, comprehensively cover motor development and motor impairment, drawing on sources in medicine and health-related studies, motor learning and developmental psychology.

A theme that runs through the book is that movement outcomes are a complex transaction of child resources, the context in which movement takes place, and the manner in which tasks are presented.

The core themes of the book involve descriptions of motor development from conception through to emerging adulthood, explanations of motor development from differing theoretical, empirical, and experiential perspectives, and descriptions and explanations of atypical motor development when the resources of the child are limited in some way.


Occupational therapists, physiotherapists, paediatricians, teachers (physical education, early childhood development, elementary education), educational psychologists, kinesiology and sports scientists.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine

Visual Impairment in Children due to Damage to the Brain

The increased awareness of cerebral visual impairment in children, combined with improved recognition of its wide ranging manifestations, has led to its recognition as the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the developed world. Yet the subject is in its infancy, with very little published to date. Information on this complex topic has been needed by all disciplines working with disabled children for many years.

This ambitious book links the work of authors from many of the major research teams in this field, who have made significant contributions to the literature on the subject of cerebral visual impairment and provide a structured amalgam of the viewpoints of different specialists.  The book contains some very novel concepts, which will be of great practical value to those who care for children with visual impairment due to brain injury. Summaries of the more specialist chapters as well as clear diagrams and a glossary have been provided to increase the book’s accessibility to a broader readership.

This is an exciting and important field, to which this book makes a major contribution.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 186

Spinal Cord Injury in the Child and Young Adult

Persons with paediatric-onset spinal cord injury also have unique developmental needs. They experience the typical ongoing challenges of each developmental stage (e.g. childhood, adolescence) as well as changes owing to their spinal cord injury.

This book is intended for clinicians of all disciplines, from those who may only occasionally care for youth with spinal cord injury to those who specialize in spinal cord injury, as well as clinical and basic researchers in the spinal cord injury field.

Topics covered include new developments in pediatric spinal cord injury research, current standards for optimal care, areas lacking scientific evidence, and recommendations for clinical practice and future research.


Developmental paediatricians, paediatric intensivists, paediatricians, orthopaedic surgeons, spine surgeons, neurosurgeons, physiatrists, neurologists, urologists, plastic surgeons, psychologists,  occupational, speech, and physical therapists, biomedical/rehabilitation engineers, nurses,  life care planners, orthotists.

Full Book Review

Read the full book review by Deborah Gaebler Spira published in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine Series

Neurophysiological Examination of the Newborn lnfant

This book describes the application of neurophysiological examination techniques to the newborn infant, and evaluates their importance in the care of newborn babies.

Clinics in Developmental Medicine N0.120