Books

Subject: Child Neurology

Series: International Review of Child Neurology Series

Publication date: 01/03/2011

ISBN: 9781898683346

Edition: 1st

Pages: 248

Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease in Childhood

Vijeya Ganesan, Fenella Kirkham (Editors)

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The field of stroke and cerebrovascular disease in children is one in which there has been much recent research activity, leading to new clinical perspectives.

This book for the first time summarizes the state of the art in this field. A team of eminent clinicians, neurologists and researchers provide an up-to-the-minute account of all aspects of stroke and cerebrovascular disease in children, ranging from a historical perspective to future directions, through epidemiology, the latest neuroimaging techniques, neurodevelopment, comorbidities, diagnosis and treatment. The authors’ practical approach to the clinical problems makes this essential reading for practising clinicians. It will also be of interest to researchers in the field.

International Review of Child Neurology Series No. 11

Vijeya Ganesan
Vijeya Ganesan

Dr Vijeya Ganesan is Senior Clinical Lecturer at the Institute of Child Health, University College London. Special interests: Neurovascular disorders and general neurology.

Fenella Kirkham
Fenella Kirkham

Fenella Kirkham is Professor of Paediatric Neurology at the Institute of Child Health, University College London and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London.

AUTHORS’ APPOINTMENTS ix
1. CHILDHOOD STROKE – THE UNKINDEST CUT OF ALL: A HISTORY OF CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD 1
Andrew N. Williams and Fenella J. Kirkham
2. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN CIRCULATION 17
Chao Bao Luo, Marina Sachet Ferreira, Hortensia Alvarez, Georges Rodesch and Pierre L. Lasjaunias
3. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD STROKE 22
Gabrielle deVeber
4. CLINICAL AND IMAGING FEATURES OF CHILDHOOD STROKE 27
4.1 CLINICAL SYNDROMES 27
4.1.1 ANTERIOR CIRCULATION STROKE 27
Fenella J. Kirkham
4.1.2 POSTERIOR CIRCULATION STROKES IN CHILDREN 38
Bhuwan P. Garg
4.1.3 SPINAL CORD STROKE 43
Bettina Harms, Jason MacDonald and Fenella J. Kirkham
4.2 NEUROIMAGING 48
4.2.1 IMAGING OF PAEDIATRIC STROKE 48
Dawn E. Saunders and W.K. Kling Chong
4.2.2 RECENT ADVANCES IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 57
Fernando Calamante, Jacques-Donald Tournier and Alan Connelly
5. RISK FACTORS AND TRIGGERS FOR CRYPTOGENIC (AND SYMPTOMATIC) STROKE 84
5.1 CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES FROM INFECTIOUS/INFLAMMATORY ORIGIN 84
Guillaume Sébire and Benedict Michel (with a section on human immunodeficiency virus by Nomazulu Dlamini and Fenella J. Kirkham)
5.2 THROMBOPHILIA AND CHILDHOOD STROKE 91
Ulrike Nowak-Göttl and Ronald Sträter
5.3 HYPERTENSION AND CHILDHOOD STROKE 94
Juan C. Kupferman, Fenella J. Kirkham and Steven Pavlakis
5.4 TRAUMA 96
Fenella J. Kirkham
5.5 IRON DEFICIENCY 96
Fenella J. Kirkham
5.6 PATENT FORAMEN OVALE AND PARADOXICAL EMBOLISM 96
Vijeya Ganesan and Fenella J. Kirkham
6. ARTERIAL ISCHAEMIC STROKE AND VASCULAR DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD 107
6.1 CERVICOCEPHALIC ARTERIAL DISSECTIONS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE 107
Göran Darius Hildebrand and Stéphane Chabrier
6.2 TRANSIENT CEREBRAL ARTERIOPATHY 115
Guillaume Sébire
6.3 MOYAMOYA SYNDROME IN CHILDHOOD 120
Vijeya Ganesan and Brian G.R. Neville
6.4 CEREBRAL VASCULITIS 127
Russell C. Dale
6.5 VASOSPASM 131
Fenella J. Kirkham
6.6 TORTUOSITY AND DOLICHOECTASIA 132
Katharine M.L. Forrest
6.7 DEVELOPMENTAL VENOUS ANOMALIES 133
Mara Prengler and Fenella J. Kirkham
7. CEREBAL SINOVENOUS (VENOUS SINUS) THROMBOSIS 145
Gabrielle deVeber
8. HAEMORRHAGIC STROKE 160
8.1 NON-TRAUMATIC INTRACRANIAL HAEMORRHAGE IN CHILDREN 160
Vijeya Ganesan and Dawn E. Saunders
8.2 SURGICAL TREATMENT OF HAEMORRHAGIC STROKE IN CHILDREN 169
Joan P. Grieve and Neil D. Kitchen
8.3 INTERVENTIONAL NEURORADIOLOGY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ANEURYSMS AND ARTERIOVENOUS SHUNTS IN CHILDREN 172
Chao Bao Luo, Marina Sachet Ferreira, Hortensia Alvarez, Georges Rodesch, Pierre L. Lasjuanias and Stefan K. Brew
8.4 STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS IN CHILDREN 177
M.W.R. Radatz and A.A. Kemeny
9. NEONATAL STROKE 183
9.1 PERINATAL ARTERIAL STROKE 183
Frances Cowan and Eugenio Mercuri
9.2 INTRACRANIAL HAEMORRHAGE IN THE NEWBORN 194
Fenella J. Kirkham and Frances Cowan
10. VEIN OF GALEN ANEURYSMAL MALFORMATION 204
Chao Bao Luo, Marina Sachet Ferreira, Hortensia Alvarez, Georges Rodesch, Pierre L. Lasjaunias and Stefan K. Brew
11. STURGE-WEBER SYDROME 212
Sarah Aylett
12. HEMPILEGIC MIGRAINE 217
Sarah Benton, Michel D. Ferrari, Fenella J. Kirkham and Peter J. Goadsby
13. ALTERNATING HEMIPLEGIA OF CHILDHOOD 225
Jean Aicardi and Fenella J. Kirkham
14. INBORN METABOLIC DISEASE AND ACUTE FOCAL NEUROLOGY 233
Robert Surtees and Fenella J. Kirkham
15. SYMPTOMATIC STROKE 245
15.1 CARDIAC DISORDERS 245
Vijeya Ganesen
15.2 GENETICALLY DETERMINED VASCULOPATHIES AND STROKE SYNDROMES WITHOUT NEUROCUTANEOUS STIGMATA 251
Fenella J. Kirkham and Nomazulu Dlamini
15.3 GENETICALLY DETERMINED VASCULOPATHIES AND STROKE SYNDROMES WITH NEUROCUTANEOUS SYNDROMES 256
Fenella J. Kirkham
15.4 CONGENITAL AND ACQUIRED ANAEMIAS 261
Dimitrios Zafeiriou, Mara Prengler, Steven Pavlakis and Fenella J. Kirkham
15.5 IMMUNODEFICIENCY AND BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 287
Fenella J. Kirkham
15.6 PREMATURE AGEING SYDROMES (PROGERIAS) 287
Fenella J. Kirkham
15.7 STROKE IN CHILDREN WITH CANCER 288
Fenella J. Kirkham
15.8 INFLAMMATORY VASCULOPATHIES 293
Fenella J. Kirkham
16. ACUTE MANAGEMENT 319
Rebecca Ichord, Anne Yardumian, Fenella J. Kirkham and Gabrielle DeVeber
17. RECURRENCE, OUTCOME AND REHABILITATION 337
17.1 RECURRENCE AND SECONDARY PREVENTION 337
Vijeya Ganesan and Fenella J. Kirkham
17.2 OUTCOME AFTER STROKE IN CHILDHOOD 340
Anne Gordon, Lucinda Carr, Vijeya Ganesan, Fenella J. Kirkham and Gabrielle deVeber
17.3 ONTOGENETIC SPECIALIZATION OF HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION 354
Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Elizabeth Isaacs, Kate Watkins and Mortimer Mishkin
17.4 NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS 362
Amy Savage, Catherine Hill, Fenella J. Kirkham and Alexandra Hogan
17.5 SICKLE CELL DISEASE: COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIOURAL OUTCOME 370
Alexandra Hogan
17.6 REHABILITATION AFTER STROKE IN CHILDREN 380
Anne Gordon and Lucinda Carr
18. FUTURE DIRECTIONS 398
Vijeya Ganesan and Fenella J. Kirkham
INDEX 403
Colour plates fall between pages 212 and 213.

'This is a worthy addition to any child neurologist's library. I will share it with my colleagues and definitely direct our child neurology residents to it for further reading.'

Korwyn Williams, MD, PhD, Phoenix Children's Hospital

‘To summarize, this book is of great value for both the young and the experienced paeditrician and neuropaediatrician but also for the neurosurgeon and the interventional and imaging specialist. It can be used as a reference textbook of the present knowledge and management of neonatal and childhood stroke and can be warmly recommended. As the awareness of stroke in children is low, even in children with known predisposing condition, we can hope that reading this book and following these guidelines will give a better management, lower mortality and morbidity also in children in the future.’

Sten Christerson, Acta Paediatrica, 2011

‘This textbook will serve as an excellent reference for pediatric and adult neurologists, particularly those with an interest in stroke. Haematologists, neuroradiologists, and rehabilitation specialists in stroke will find the book interesting as well. I suspect, however, that you will end up reading it from cover to cover before you set it on your reference shelf.’

Catherine Amlie-Lefond, The Lancet Neurology, 2011

‘One of the notable features of this book is the enormous number of references, sometimes more than 900, at the end of each chapter, which is very useful for readers.’

Mana Kurihara, Brain & Development, 2011

This book represents an extraordinary accomplishment on the part of the editors and the many contributing authors, and serves as a testament to how this nascent field has progressed considerably over the past decade. It is of interest to both experts in the field and general child neurologists seeking a comprehensive yet in-depth review of childhood cerebrovascular disease.’

Heather J. Fullerton, Pediatric Neurology, 2012

‘This unique book brings together current opinion and evidence from an impressive number of well known professionals working within paediatric cerebrovascular disease.’

Karen Pysden, European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 2011

‘This book deserves its place in the International Review of Child Neurology Series and will serve as an excellent reference text for paediatric neurologists, neuropaediatricians, allied health professionals, and others involved in the care of newborn infants and children affected by cerebrovascular disorders.’

Mark Mackay, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 2011